JURNAL PENELITIAN 2/2008
PENGARUH PERENDAMAN DAN PROSES PENGOLAHAN PANAS TERHADAP PENGURANGAN KADAR FORMALIN PADA IKAN BANDENG (Chanos-chanos)
Siti Zahro N 1, Endang S 1, dan Nuralimin 2
The usage of formaline for food preservation is hazardous, because high dose formaline can cause skin irritation, stomachache, protein insuffiency, acid excess, headache, comma, and even death (Kirk dan Othmer, 1981). This study was aimed to examine the influence of soaking and heat processing on reduction of formaline level in milkfish (Chanos-chanos).
An experiment research method had been conducted in two phases that were phase-1 and phase-2. At phase-1, was formaline soaking (in formaline sollution 0,8% for one hour) and water dipping; two treatments had been applied those were type of water i,e, fresh water (A1), salt water (A2) and warm water (A3), and dipping time I,e, 30 minute (B1), 60 minute (B2) and 90 minute (B3). After conducted formaline test, the A3B3 was the best treatment that lessens the level of formaline up to 57,28%. This treated fish then to be used for research phase-2. Four treatments were applied those were grilled (P1), cooked (P2), fried (P3) and steamed (P4), four replication each. Each treatment is conducted for 10 minutes. Formaline test were applied after processing. The data wewe analyzed using ANOVA and continued by Least Significant Difference.
Results of the study shown that frying treatment was the highest level in deceasing the formaline content (91,90%), and the lowest was grilling treatment (47,22%). It is suggested that soaking the fish with warm water for 90 minute or 60 minute then frying it - is a save way for anticipating fish contaning formaline.
Keywords : formaline, soaking, grilled, steamed
1 Dosen Sekolah Tinggi Perikanan -Jakarta
2 Alumnus Sekolah Tinggi Perikanan - Jakarta
PENANGKAPAN CALON INDUK TUNA MADIDIHANG (Thunnus albacares) DALAM UPAYA PENGEMBANGAN BUDIDAYA IKAN TUNA DI GONDOL, BALI
Aswin Djamin1, Aman Saputra1 dan Ananto Setiadi2
Research and development of Madidihan fish (Thunnus albacores) in Indonesia is being done continuously, due to declining stock in nature caused by over intensive capture effort. The domestication, therefore, could be one of solution to overcome this situation because market opportunity for those species is still promising and it's become one of the foreign exchange.
In the future, the capture effort from the nature should be backed up by the domestication in the control tanks. Currently, it has been developed by capturing those fish from the nature and domesticated and propagated using natural spawning technique.
Key success for preparation of fish broadstock is capturing the young broadstock. The handling should be done carefully avoiding injure on the skin that can stimulate the fish stress and even mortality. The fishing can be done by using either extending fish hook (pancing ulur) or tonda fish hook (pancing tonda). It depends on purposes and spot condition. Young broadstock target should be fulfilling the criterion i. e. having 1 to 5 kg per fish following the facilities compartment on the fishing vessel. The fish is captured from the fishing ground which is completed by fish shelter (rumpon) in Northern Bali Sea. It was done around 15 to 25 miles from the land.
Keywords : Hand line (pancing ulur), Trolling line (pancing tonda), Yellow fin tuna (Thunnus albacores)
1 Dosen Sekolah Tinggi Perikanan
2 Alumnus Sekolah Tinggi Perikanan
STUDI PENGAMATAN ASPEK PERIKANAN DAN ASPEK BIOLOGI IKAN PETEK (Leiognathus equulus) YANG DI DARATKAN DI PPI KAMAL MUARA, JAKARTA UTARA
Mira Maulita 1 dan Mega Setya 2
The purpose of this research was for knowing the fisheries aspect that covers catching qear, fishing ground area and weather, and the biological aspects of the fish related to long, weiqht, gonadal stages, condition factor, length of first maturity (LM), length of firstly catched (LC) that landed in PPI Muara Kamal, North Jakarta. This research was carried out for two months, started from August 20, until Oct 20, 2008, at the PPI Kamal Muara applying survey method. Samples were taken by sampling from fish that caught by fisherman once a day. Measurement and observation include total length and weight, gonadal stage, condition factor, as well as the fishermen catsh for the day. Petek fishing gear (Leiognathus equulus) and bagan boat used by the fishermen to be taken as object of the study, while the fishing gorund was teluk Jakarta waters. Descriptive and quantitative analysis were used to analysis the data. The relation of weight and length was analysed using Effendy (1979), the gonadal maturation was based on Holden and Raitt (1974), whereas the condition factor was based on Effendie (1997), the Lm was based on Spearmen-Karber (1986) in Krissunari and Hariati (1994), while the Lc was based on Beverton & Holt (1957) in Sparre & Venema (1999).
The results of the study showed that the relation of weight and length was A grade (Intercept) = -1, 3194, b (slope) = 2,7858, so the comparison related to weight and length was W = 0,0479 L2,7858, that means that the growth rate was negative alometric. During the study, the male were not in mature stage with gonadal status 60% of the sample were stage I, II and 40% were stage III, IV. Whereas the female were in an early mature stage that 39% were stage I, II and 61% were stage III, IV. Based on Sperman-Karber method, the Lc was 13,79 cm and the Lm = 14,66 cm or Lc<Lm means that the samples were still relatively small in size, that catching activity could result in disturbing the population.
Keywords : Fisheries aspects, Biological aspects, Leiognathus equulus, Gonadal maturiton.
1 Dosen Sekolah Tinggi Perikanan
2 Alumni Sekolah Tinggi Perikanan
Yuliati. H. Sipahutar 1 dan Nunung Sabariah11
A study about the effect of cassava flour addition on the quality of otak-otak tenggiri (Scomberomus commersoni) preferred by consumers had been held at The experiment was disigned in completely random design in four treatments and six replications. The treatments include addition of 0%, 4%, 8% and 12% of cassava flour. Significant difference was analyzed throuh ANOVA; when there was are a significant difference then foollowed by Least Significant Difference test. The parameters measured includes organoleptic test through a hedonic scale and chemical analysis through proximate analysis.
Result of the study showed that addition of cassava flour may enhance the gel strength of otak-otak. Furthermore, an addition of 8% cassava flour was the best quality/ most preferred by panelists through its taste and aroma, with 60.29% water, 9.67% ash, 48.02% protein, and 17.93% fat content.
Keywords : Tenggiri (Scomberomus commersoni), concentration, cassava flour, otak-otak.
1 Dosen Sekolah Tinggi Perikanan -Jakarta
EFEKTIVITAS PENGGUNAAN DAGING BIJI PICUNG (Pangium edule Reinw) UNTUK PENGAWETAN IKAN SELAR COMO (Caranx mate C.V.) SEGAR
Resmi Rumenta Siregar 1
One of the food preservation is by adding the chemicals. Formalin is one of the chemicals which often used as food preservative for fish, meat, chicken and their products. But we know that formalin is not food preservative or food addiitives, so we need natural ingredient as alternative for food preservation.
The lack of ice used as fish freshness controled caused the fisherman used picung kernel (Pangium edule Reinw) to manage the fish freshness. The picung kernel traditionally consumed in Indonesia. The substance is also used as a medical substances to cure scabies on as insecticides., soap, or as raw material for edible oil and colourant for yarn (burkill, 1935). Picung is available in Indonesia, so that enables used in several fishing grounds and fishing ports which suffer from ice deficiency. The object of this research is to know the best precentage of picung kernel (Pangium edule Reinw) as fish preservation.
Based on the analytical result on the additional picung kernel (Pangium dule Reinw ) and salt at the proportion of salt : picung kernel arranging as follows from 2%:2%, 2%:4%, 2%:6%, 3%:2%, 3%:4%, 3%:6%, 4%:2%, 4%:4%, 4%:6%, was found inhibit the decomposition rate due to bacterial growth. The result was to demonstrate that the antimicrobial substances contain in the picung kernel may be used as the natural preservative for fresh fish and seems to increase the self life of fresh fish (Caranx mate) within 5 days, stored in ambient temperature (29oC-30oC).
The conclusion of this reseach is, the best combination is 2% of salt and 4% of picung kernel. That’s combination can increase the self life of fresh fish (Caranx mate) within 5 days. It can be concluded that picung kernel combine with salt have a large potency as natural preservative.
Keywords: antimicrobial, bacterial growth, decomposition, picung kernel, preservative, self life.
1 Dosen Sekolah Tinggi Perikanan-DKP
PENGARUH TITIK BERAT KAPAL ( KG ) DAN DISPLACEMENT ( ? ) TERHADAP STABILITAS MELINTANGKAPAL LONG LINER
Abdul Basith 1
Study the effect of centre of gravity (the value of KG) and displacement on ship stability of a long liner MV.Samodra 34 omned by PT.Perikanan Nusantara, Cabang Benoa-Bali had been done during one trip from March 1st to June 25th, 2008. Observation and measurement during sailing include fuel oil, fresh water, ransom, catch, the healing moment. Measurement had been calculated from the point of the ship’s departure, at 5th day, 10 th day, 15th day, 20th day, 25th day, and when the ship arrived i.e the twenty seven day. The stability, free surface effect, rolling period, equation of moment were calculated.
The ststistical analysis include single regession, multiple regression, and person correlation. The last value of KG, displacement, GM and effective GM obtained during the trip were as followes: KG =1,765m ?=89,25 ton,GM= 0,57m, effective GM 0,57 m ; KG= 1,75 m?=, 83,18 ton,GM= 1,84 m,effective GM= 1,837m ; KG= 1,76m, ?= 77,12 ton, GM=1,65m, effective GM=1,648m ; KG= 1,88m, ?= 70,94 ton, GM= 0,52m, effective GM=0,518m ; KG=1,89m, ?= 65,40 ton, GM= 0,51m, effective GM= 0,503m ; KG=1,952m, ?=59,30 ton,GM= 0,43m, effective GM= 0,40m. And than value of KG, displacement to rolling period obtained during the trip i.e these of value are comformed to standards of ship stability : T= 5,172 sec, T= 2, 878sec, T= 3, 039sec, T= 5,424sec, T= 5,477sec, T=5, 963m. Ship’s stability MV.Samodra 34 during the sailing were: to have stiff at 5th and 10th day, and then to have tender at the other days.
Keywords : Ship’s stability of long liner ; Displacement ; Centre of gravity.
1 Dosen Sekolah Tinggi Perikanan Jakarta
Yuliati H. Sipahutar 1 dan Bambang Budi Sasmito 2
A research have been done with experiment in two phase, the first phase were carageenan extraction and physical as well as chemictry analyses. Second phase were main research, i..e carp nugget’s processing with carageenan treatment of 0,1,2,3%. The product then to be evaluated with organoleptic and proximate analysis. The evaluation result then to be compared to commercial product.
Convendish plan have been done with Completely Random Design with carageenan concentration treatment, to calculate physical and proximate test. A significant difference analysis advanced with Duncan test, and for the sensory statistic analysis, Kruskal Wallis was applied; when there was a real difference then followed by Multiple Comparison test.
At the introduction phase, obtained that carageenan with rendemen 39%, viskosity 878 cps, gel strength 1728 g/cm2, sulphate content 14,60% water content 8,69% and dust content 14,01%. From Kruskal Wallis test resut known that carageenan influenced to panelists’preference to carp nugget texture. From Multiple Comparison test known that there were no difference on aroma among the 0,1,2,3 % concentration carrageenan addition.
From the physical test and analysis indicate that carageenan addition makes no influence to elasticity and brightness value (L), a (florid) value dan b (yellowness) value, but give real influence on the carp nugget hardeness value. From Duncan test result known that there was significcant difference between 1% dan 2% treatment and 3% treatment. Whereas 1 % and 2% treatment give hardeness value which approached commercial fish nugget hardeness value.
According sensorik dan physical value, 1% addition was the preferred product with water content 53,16%, dust content 3,02%, protein content 10,96%, fat content 14,54% and carbohydrate content18.31%.
Key words. Crap nugget, carageenan concentration, quality nugget
1 Dosen Sekolah Tinggi Perikanan –Jakarta
2 Dosen Program Studi Teknologi Hasil Perikanan, Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan Universitas Brawijaya, Jl. Veteran No 1 Malang Telp 0341-553512, 567044